Penembahan Senopati had a young named was Sutowijoyo and ruled Mataram kingdom in 1585 until 1601. In 1601, the title of Raden Mas Jolang with his title Susuhunan Hadi prabu Hanyakrawati replaced Mataram kings until year of 1913. After his king Hanyakrawati Hadi dies, succeeded by Sultan Agung Hanyakrakusuma, who ruled from the year 1613 until 1945. At the time of Sultan Agung rule, Mataram kingdom was in the height of glory. Because many kingdom were conquered by him, the kings of the North coast of Central Java and East Java, West Kalimantan, Surabaya Madura and Cirebon.
Sultan Agung was religious figure and his not happy with the Netherlands who colonised Java Island. Sultan Agung, aspires to rule the whole of Java but failed. Because of there were three political forces, namely Mataram, Banten and VOC in Batavia by the time. The displeasure of Sultan Agung in the Netherlands, that can see when Sultan Agung attacked VOC in Batavia for 2 times, as the centre of the Dutch power in Java Island. But the attempt was failed due to the outbreak of disease and lack of food because the barns were burned by Dutch. As a courtesy, then Sultan Agung Indonesian government awarded as one of the national heroes who tried to expel the invaders from Indonesia.
In the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyakrakusuma, he was smart to organised controlled economic and political relations with other regions. Evidence of cooperation of economic field is Palembang and Jambi rely rice needs of Mataram, caused people in Palembang and Jambi planted pepper rather than rice. Mataram kingdom established a relationship with the Portuguese in Malacca in the year of 1641. Mataram kingdom sent rice to Portuguese in Malacca, while the Portuguese in Malacca provide the required clothing and necessities of war. Evidence of cooperation politics was given protection to Palembang and Jambi to avoid expansion of Banten and Aceh. Protection was ended in the year of 1642 and that was when the fleet was destroyed by VOC in Palembang.