Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world consist of five major islands and about 30 smaller groups. There are total of 17,508 islands of which about 6000 are inhabited. Straddling the equator, the archipelago is on a crossroads between two oceans. It is Pacific and Indian Ocean and bridges of two continents and they are Asia and Australia.
The territory of Indonesia stretches from 6°08' N latitude to 11°15' S latitude, and from 94°45' E to 141°05' E longitude and total area of Indonesia is 1,919,440 km square. The land: 1,826,440 km square and sea area is 93,000 km square. The five main islands are: Sumatra 473,606 km square. The most fertile and densely populated islands, Java/Madura is 132,107 km square. Kalimantan, which comprise two-thirds of Borneo island 539,460 km square, Sulawesi 189,216 km square. and then Papua 421,981 km square, which is part of the world's second largest island, it is Papua New Guinea.
The country is predominantly mountainous with 400 volcanoes, which are 100 active. The highest mountain is the perpetually snow capped Mandala top 6000 meters on mount Jaya Wijaya range of Papua. Plenty of rivers flow throughout to the country. They serve as useful transportation routes on certain islands, like: Musi, Batanghari, Indragiri and Kampar rivers in Sumatra; Kapuas, Barito, Mahakam and Rejang rivers in Borneo and Memberamo and Digul rivers in Papua.
Weather and Climate
Because of its proximity to equator, that’s why Indonesia has tropical climate. Normally the weather is hot and humid. Indonesian climate is divided become two distinct seasons: dry and rainy seasons. Most of Indonesia has their rainy season from November up to April, but certain places like Maluku have theirs from March up to August. During rainy season, the rain starts around afternoon time and lasts into the afternoon. Some areas could have sudden showers for more than three hours.
The dry season does not mean that there is no rain. In fact tropical showers in a dry season is a regular affair. The temperature is constant except for the exceptionally rainy season's nights, when it could drop. The temperature on the coast is about 28° Celsius and drops dramatically in the highlands. For instance, in the highlands of Papua, temperatures at night can drop to about 7° C, while during daytime they reach about 22° C.
The present day, Indonesia culture is an outcome of the interplay of old traditions from the time of early migrants and the Western thought brought by Dutch Colonist and Portuguese traders. The basic principles, which guide life include the concepts of mutual assistance and consultations to arrive at a consensus or result. Derived from rural life, this system is still very much in use in community life throughout the Indonesia country. Though the legal system is based on the Old Dutch penal code and the social life as well as the rites of passage is founded on customary or "adat" law, which differs from place to other. The law has been instrumental in maintaining gender equality in Indonesia.